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    الجمعة، 7 أكتوبر، 2016

    Analysis and Design of Shallow and Deep Foundations


    Analysis and Design of Shallow and Deep Foundations

    Builders have realized the need for stable foundations since structures began
    rising above the ground. Builders in the time of the Greeks and the Romans
    certainly understood the need for an adequate foundation because many of
    their structures have remained unyielding for centuries. Portions of Roman
    aqueducts that carried water by gravity over large distances remain today. The
    Romans used stone blocks to create arched structures many meters in height
    that continue to stand without obvious settlement. The beautiful Pantheon,
    with a dome that rises 142 ft above the floor, remains steady as a tribute to
    builders in the time of Agrippa and Hadrian. The Colosseum in Rome, the
    massive buildings at Baalbek, and the Parthenon in Athens are ancient structures
    that would be unchanged today except for vandalism or possibly earthquakes.


    Perhaps the most famous foundations of history are those of the Roman
    roads. The modern technique of drainage was employed. The courses below
    a surface course of closely fitted flat paving stones were a base of crushed
    stone, followed by flat slabs set in mortar, and finally rubble. The roads provided
    a secure means of surface transportation to far-flung provinces and
    accounted significantly for Roman domination for many centuries. Some portions
    of the Roman roads remain in use today

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