Analysis and Design of Shallow and Deep Foundations

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Analysis and Design of Shallow and Deep Foundations

Builders have realized the need for stable foundations since structures began
rising above the ground. Builders in the time of the Greeks and the Romans
certainly understood the need for an adequate foundation because many of
their structures have remained unyielding for centuries. Portions of Roman
aqueducts that carried water by gravity over large distances remain today. The
Romans used stone blocks to create arched structures many meters in height
that continue to stand without obvious settlement. The beautiful Pantheon,
with a dome that rises 142 ft above the floor, remains steady as a tribute to
builders in the time of Agrippa and Hadrian. The Colosseum in Rome, the
massive buildings at Baalbek, and the Parthenon in Athens are ancient structures
that would be unchanged today except for vandalism or possibly earthquakes.



Perhaps the most famous foundations of history are those of the Roman
roads. The modern technique of drainage was employed. The courses below
a surface course of closely fitted flat paving stones were a base of crushed
stone, followed by flat slabs set in mortar, and finally rubble. The roads provided
a secure means of surface transportation to far-flung provinces and
accounted significantly for Roman domination for many centuries. Some portions
of the Roman roads remain in use today

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