ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF HAMMERHEAD BRIDGE PIER USING STRUT AND TIE METHOD.

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ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF HAMMERHEAD
BRIDGE PIER USING STRUT AND TIE METHOD


The main advantages of truss model are their transparency and adaptability to arbitrary
geometric and loading configuration. In strut-and-tie modeling, the internal stresses are
transferred through a truss mechanism. The tensile ties and compressive struts serve as
truss members connected by nodal zones. The advantages have been thrust into the back
ground by several recent developments of design equations based on truss models,
The present study is focus on developing a uniform design procedure for applying the
strut-and-tie modeling method to hammerhead pier. A study was conducted using
hammerhead piers that were previously designed using

the strength method specified by 
code. 



This structure was completed and had put into service. During the inspection,
cracks were observed on the piers. The scope of this study is to highlight the application
of a newer generation strut-and-tie model, which is not practice at the time of the
original design. Depth to span ratios varies from 1.5 to 2.11 and the girders are
transferring loads very close to the support edge, making these hammerheads ideals
candidates for strut-and-tie application. This study only focus on comparison the
reinforcement detail drawing produce previously designed using the strength method,
and reinforcing requirement using strut-and-tie model.
Based on the design studies, a well-defined procedure for designing a hammerhead pier
utilizing the strut-and-tie model was established that may be used by bridge engineers.
There could be numerous reasons for the crack to develop. Shrinkage, stress
concentration or some erection condition may be a few of them.

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