In response to these issues, engineers have been driven back to a fundamental

understanding of the way conventional crushed aggregates behave, how this compares to

the behaviour of alternatives and how properties may be amended or best exploited to
maximise their engineering capacity. In summary, one could say that the aim has been to
get the necessary performance from different or poorer materials for less cost.
So there has been a lot of research work in the laboratory, along with practical work
in-situ, to assess the properties of relevance and to investigate different formulations. Site
trials have been made to demonstrate the feasibility of new construction methods or
materials. In-situ testing has advanced considerably to allow quality control to assess
properties directly related to the anticipated resources. Along with these “hard”
developments “soft” engineering has also been moving forward—new specification
approaches have been adopted to maximise the possibilities and to permit adequately
performing, novel materials; new analytical approaches are being tried to permit better
prediction of future performance.

It is for these reasons that this book sets out to report on recent advances and
experiences. It aims to encompass granular bases and sub-bases together with alternatives
to conventional granular materials in these applications including hydraulically bound
and stabilised materials. Equally, their application in low volume and unsealed
pavements and in the lower layers of bound pavements is addressed. This book includes
38 technical contributions from authors in every part of the world (once again

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