Design Optimization of Active and Passive Structural Control Systems
A typical engineering task during the development of any system is, among others, to improve its performance in terms of cost and response. Improvements can be achieved either by simply using design rules based on the experience or in an automated way by using optimization methods that lead to optimum designs
Structural control is an expanding field in the family of control systems, also known as earthquake protective systems, including passive, active, and hybrid systems. Applications to buildings, bridges,
and power plants have been made in many seismically active countries (primarily in Italy, Japan, New Zealand, and the United States). Structural control provides an alternative to conventional structural design methods. In many applications, elastic performance during large earthquake events is economically feasible, and the methodology permits performance-based design criteria, now required in many modern seismic design codes, to be satisfied more readily than with conventional methods.
Applications to the retrofit of existing structures have been particularly attractive, especially to the upgrading of historical buildings. Passive control systems include tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, mechanical energy dissipation systems, and others. Major developments in theory, design, and installation procedures of these systems have permitted applications to buildings, bridges, and power plants. After the development of passive control systems, the next step was to control the action of these devices in an optimal manner by an external energy source and the resulting system is known as an active control
device system. In recent years significant progress has been made in the analytical study of active control systems for civil engineering structures. There are however limitations to the use of the passive and active control systems, and therefore, further study is required. These limitations include the uncertainty of the response, the non-optimal behavior of passive systems for both small and large earthquakes and others. The structural control fields described above define “hot” topics of Earthquake Engineering involving