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    الاثنين، 15 أغسطس، 2016

    Civil excavations and tunnelling – a practical guide


    Civil excavations and tunnelling – a practical guide


    Excavation means dislodging the rock or ground from in situ and disposing
    of it from there and, thereby, creating an opening. This opening,
    when exposed to the sun and atmosphere, is known as an open cut or
    surface opening, and when the same is created beneath the ground and is
    not exposed to the atmosphere, it is known as an underground or subsurface
    opening. Civil excavations mean those excavations that are usually under
    the purview of civil and construction engineering disciplines, in terms of
    their planning, design, execution and construction. This book is confined
    only to civil excavations, and not to those required for development and
    exploitation (mining) of mineral deposits. There are many ways to classify
    civil excavations. Based on locales, it could be either surface or underground.
    Site investigation is the foundation on which a future structure is built. A shaky
    foundation is always dangerous. Trouble starts in floating tenders, negotiating
    bids, awarding tenders and, ultimately, during execution of a project. It often
    becomes the cause of dispute between contractor and the owner. Cost overrun,
    delays and abnormal incidences could be the results of improper and inadequate
    site investigation.

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