Civil excavations and tunnelling – a practical guide

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Civil excavations and tunnelling – a practical guide


Excavation means dislodging the rock or ground from in situ and disposing
of it from there and, thereby, creating an opening. This opening,
when exposed to the sun and atmosphere, is known as an open cut or
surface opening, and when the same is created beneath the ground and is
not exposed to the atmosphere, it is known as an underground or subsurface
opening. Civil excavations mean those excavations that are usually under
the purview of civil and construction engineering disciplines, in terms of
their planning, design, execution and construction. This book is confined
only to civil excavations, and not to those required for development and
exploitation (mining) of mineral deposits. There are many ways to classify
civil excavations. Based on locales, it could be either surface or underground.
Site investigation is the foundation on which a future structure is built. A shaky
foundation is always dangerous. Trouble starts in floating tenders, negotiating
bids, awarding tenders and, ultimately, during execution of a project. It often
becomes the cause of dispute between contractor and the owner. Cost overrun,
delays and abnormal incidences could be the results of improper and inadequate
site investigation.

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