Wind Loading of Structures
The wind loading of structures has had significant research effort in many countries
during the last 30–35 years. Several thousand research papers have been published in
journals and conference proceedings in all aspects of the subject. In many countries, wind
loading governs the design of many structures; yet, even there, a good knowledge and
understanding of wind loading amongst practising engineers is not widespread, despite
the wealth of material available. Why is this the case? There are probably several reasons.
The multi-disciplinary nature of the subject—involving probability and statistics,
meteorology, the fluid mechanics of bluff bodies and structural dynamics—undoubtedly
is a deterrent to structural engineers whose expertise is in the analysis and design of
structures under nominally static loads. The subject is usually not taught in University
and College courses, except as final year undergraduate electives, or at post-graduate
level, although exposure to wind loading codes of practice or standards often occurs in
design courses. Like many subjects, the jargon used by specialists and researchers in
wind loading can be a deterrent to many non-specialists.
This book has been written with the practising structural engineer in mind, based on
many years of experience working with clients in this profession. I hope it may also find
use in advanced University courses. Although there are several other books on the
subject, in this one I have attempted to fill gaps in a number of areas
• An overview of wind loading on structures of all types is given (not just buildings).
• The method of effective static wind load distributions is covered in some detail (mainly
in Chapter 5). I have found this approach to fluctuating and dynamic wind loading to
have good acceptance amongst structural engineers, raised on a diet of static load
• Internal pressures are discussed in some detail (Chapter 6).
• An attempt has been made (Appendix D) to give an overview of extreme and design
wind speeds for the whole world. This is probably a first anywhere, but it is an
important step, and one that needs to be expanded in the future, as design projects are
now routinely carried out by structural engineers in countries other than their own.
The need for such information will become more important in the future as the
expansion in world trade (including engineering services) continues.
I have tried to minimize the amount of mathematics, and concentrate on the physical
principles involved. In some chapters (e.g. Chapter 5), I have found it necessary to
include a significant amount of mathematics, but, hopefully, not at the expense of the
physical principles. These sections could be omitted in a first reading.