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    السبت، 30 يوليو، 2016

    Wastewater Stabilization Ponds


    Wastewater Stabilization Ponds


    Wastewater treatment can be accomplished using ponds (lagoons). Ponds are relatively

    easy to build and manage; they accommodate large fluctuations in flow; and
    they can provide treatment producing a highly purified effluent that approaches that
    of conventional systems at much lower cost. It is the cost factor that drives many
    managers to decide on the pond option. The actual degree of treatment provided
    depends on the type and number of ponds used. Ponds can be used as the sole treatment
    or they can be used in conjunction with other forms of wastewater treatment;
    that is, other treatment unit processes can be followed by a pond or a pond can be
    followed by other treatment processes.


    Stabilization ponds have been used for the treatment of wastewater for over 3000
    years. The first recorded construction of a pond system in the United States was at
    San Antonio, Texas, in 1901. Today, over 8000 wastewater treatment ponds are in
    place and are being used by more than 50% of the wastewater treatment facilities in
    the United States. Facultative ponds account for 62%, aerated ponds 25%, anaerobic
    ponds 0.04%, and total containment ponds 12% of the pond treatment systems.
    They treat a variety of wastewaters from domestic wastewater to complex industrial
    wastes, and they function under a wide range of weather conditions, from tropical to
    arctic. Ponds can be used alone or in combination with other wastewater treatment
    processes. As our understanding of pond operating mechanisms has increased, different
    types of ponds have been developed for application in specific types of wastewater
    under local environmental conditions. This handbook focuses on municipal

    wastewater treatment pond systems.
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