Crack Analysis in Structural Concrete Theory and Applications
This book is an outgrowth of my research in the broad field of fracture mechanics over a period of
twenty years, the past fifteen years of which I have spent focusing on a subbranch of the discipline—
that is, fracture mechanics of concrete. My late decision to focus on this field of study
was motivated by two factors, namely, a surging demand for crack analysis in structural concrete
and a keen personal interest in the subject. Compared with other mature engineering disciplines,
fracture mechanics of concrete is still a developing field that is wonderfully rich in scope and
diversity and full of challenging issues to be studied.
In recent years a wide range of models and applications have been proposed for crack analysis,
and an impressive array of useful information has been accumulated. As a result, the theoretical
basis of the discipline has been strengthened; a number of fundamental issues solved; and the
range of applications widened. As the subject is approaching its early stage of maturity, it is
imperative for students to learn the fundamental theoretical advances that have been made, and
engineers need to familiarize themselves with newly developed numerical solution techniques.
I have written this book to summarize the recent theoretical advances in the computational
fracture mechanics of concrete, especially regarding the discrete approach to multiple-crack analysis
and mixed-mode fracture. The extension of the Fictitious Crack Model (FCM) to address
these problems has greatly expanded the range of crack analysis in structural concrete. The book
begins with a brief introduction to the fundamental theories of linear elastic fracture mechanics
and nonlinear fracture mechanics of concrete. Then, after addressing the issue of stress singularity
in numerical modeling and introducing some basic modeling techniques, the Extended Fictitious
Crack Model (EFCM) for multiple-crack analysis is explained with numerical application examples.
This theoretical model is then used to study two important issues in fracture mechanics:
(1) crack interaction and localization and (2) failure modes and maximum loads. The EFCM is
subsequently reformulated to include the shear transfer mechanism on crack surfaces and the
method is used to study experimental problems. Following these theoretical developments, an
application example in tunnel engineering is discussed, which shows how the EFCM can be built
into a pseudoshell model for crack analysis of tunnel linings that takes the earth–tunnel interaction
into account. Because the book is written both for students and practicing engineers, an effort has
been made to present a balanced mixture of theory, experiment, and application.